In 2015, 39.1 percent of Delaware residents age 18 years and older reported they had been diagnosed with high cholesterol. That means more than 235,547 Delaware adults know they have high cholesterol, according to the Delaware Behavioral Risk Survey (BRFS). Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance found in the blood. The body needs it to build healthy cells. However, when there is too much cholesterol in the blood, it can build up in the arteries reducing the space for blood to flow, causing less blood to flow to the heart and other organs.
Trend in Adult High Cholesterol Prevalence in Delaware:
The BRFS asks about cholesterol every other year; and the prevalence has been statistically unchanged among Delaware adults for the past five years.
The prevalence of high cholesterol increases with age. Only 21.8 percent of Delaware adults age 18-44 have been told they have high cholesterol. However, 39.4 percent of adults age 45-54, 48.7 percent of adults age 55-64, and 55.4 percent of adults age 65 years and older have been told they have high cholesterol. These increases are statistically significant.
Women have a slightly lower prevalence of high cholesterol compared to men; 36.9 percent of Delaware women have been told they have high cholesterol, compared to 41.5 percent of men.
Non-Hispanic white Delawareans reported having slightly higher prevalence of high cholesterol (40.8 percent) than African American adults (36.9 percent). However, this difference was not statistically significant.
Delaware adults with a high school education or less have a higher prevalence of high cholesterol compared to their counterparts who have some technical school or college degree. However, when adjusted for other demographic characteristics and risk factors, differences among educational attainment groups were not significant.
Adults with an income of less than $15,000 annually have the highest prevalence of high cholesterol (56.4 percent). In contrast, Delaware adults with an annual income of $50,000 or more annually have the lowest prevalence of high cholesterol (35.0 percent). Additionally, when adjusted for other demographic characteristics and risk factors, Delaware adults in the lowest income bracket were almost twice as likely to have high cholesterol as adults making at least $50,000 a year.
There are no differences in prevalence of high cholesterol observed between Delaware adults who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) compared to heterosexual gender-conforming Delaware adults.
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommends adults age 20 and older should have their cholesterol checked every 5 years. Of Delaware adults aged 20 years and older, 96.2 percent reported having their blood cholesterol level tested within the last five years.
For those with borderline high or high cholesterol, recommendations on how often a cholesterol test is required should be made by a health care professional.
For those with coronary heart disease, a cholesterol test is recommended annually. Of Delaware adults with coronary heart disease, 92.4 percent reported having their cholesterol checked within the last year.
There are several risk factors for high cholesterol, including existing health conditions, behavioral risks, and family history or genetics.
Diabetes is known to be associated with high cholesterol. Of the Delawarean adults who have diabetes, 65.8 percent also have high cholesterol. When adjusted for other demographic characteristics and risk factors, Delaware adults with diabetes were more than twice as likely to have high cholesterol as adults without diabetes.
Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and excessive drinking.
Prevalence of high cholesterol among adults who are physically inactive is 44.6 percent; and the prevalence among obese adults is 45.9 percent. Adults who smoke cigarettes have a high cholesterol prevalence of 46.1 percent. Those who report chronic heavy alcohol use have a high cholesterol prevalence of 45.4 percent. The highest prevalence is among adults with disabilities (52.4 percent). The underlying causes of those disabilities may be conditions which increase the risk for high cholesterol.
Family history and genetics are likely to play a role in whether an individual develops high cholesterol. For example, the risk of high cholesterol can increase when someone who has a family history of hypertension also engages in other behavioral risk factors, such as physical inactivity.
Complications: High cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease. Some of the conditions to which high cholesterol can contribute include heart attack, angina or chest pain, stroke, and aortic aneurysm.
Take medicines as prescribed by your doctor. There are medications which can help lower or control high cholesterol, decreasing your risk of complications. If a medication is prescribed to you, take it as instructed. If your risk factors change (for example, if you start an exercise program or change your diet), tell your doctor or health care team because your medication may need to be adjusted.
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