RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ANALYTICAL X-RAY EQUIPMENT
Sec. H.1 Purpose and Scope
This Part provides special requirements for analytical x-ray equipment. The requirements of this Part are in addition to, and not in
substitution for, applicable requirements in other Parts of the regulations.
Sec. H.2 Definitions
As used in this Part, the following definitions apply:
“Analytical x-ray equipment” means equipment used for x-ray diffraction or fluorescence analysis.
“Analytical x-ray system” means a group of components utilizing x- or gamma-rays to determine the elemental composition or to
examine the microstructure of materials.
“Fail-safe characteristics” mean a design feature which causes beam port shutters to close, or otherwise prevents emergence
of the primary beam, upon the failure of a safety or warning device.
“Local components” mean part of an analytical x-ray system and include areas that are struck by x-rays such as radiation
source housings, port and shutter assemblies, collimators, sample holders, cameras, goniometers, detectors, and shielding, but do not
include power supplies, transformers, amplifiers, readout devices, and control panels.
“Normal operating procedures” mean step-by-step instructions necessary to accomplish the analysis. These procedures shall
include sample insertion and manipulation, equipment alignment, routine maintenance by the registrant or licensee, and data recording
procedures, which are related to radiation safety.
“Open-beam configuration” means an analytical x-ray system in which an individual could accidentally place some part of his
body in the primary beam path during normal operation.
“Primary beam” means radiation which passes through an aperture of the source housing by a direct path from the x-ray tube or
a radioactive source located in the radiation source housing.
General Regulatory Provisions and Specific Requirements
Sec. H.3 Equipment Requirements
- Safety Device - A device which prevents the entry of any portion of an individual‘s body into the primary x-ray beam path or
which causes the beam to be shut off upon entry into its path shall be provided on all open-beam configurations. A registrant or licensee
may apply to the Agency for an exemption from the requirement of a safety device. Such application shall include:
- a description of the various safety devices that have been evaluated;
- the reason each of these devices cannot be used; and
- a description of the alternative methods that will be employed to minimize the possibility of an accidental exposure, including
procedures to assure that operators and others in the area will be informed of the absence of safety devices.
- Warning Devices
- Open-beam configurations shall be provided with a readily discernible indication of:
- x-ray tube “on-off” status located near the radiation source housing, if the primary beam is controlled in this
- shutter “open-closed” status located near each port on the radiation source housing, if the primary beam is
controlled in this manner.
- An easily visible warning light labeled with the words “X-RAY ON”, or words having a similar intent, shall be
- near any switch that energizes an x-ray tube and shall be illuminated only when the tube is energized; or
- in the case of a radioactive source, near any switch that opens a housing shutter and shall be illuminated only when the
shutter is open.
- Warning devices shall be labeled so that their purpose is easily identified. On equipment installed after July 1, 1983, warning
devices shall have fail-safe characteristics.
- Ports - Unused ports on radiation source housings shall be secured in the closed position in a manner which will prevent casual
- Labeling - All analytical x-ray equipment shall be labeled with a readily discernible sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and
- “CAUTION - HIGH INTENSITY X-RAY BEAM”, or words having a similar intent, on the x-ray source housing; and
- “CAUTION RADIATION - THIS EQUIPMENT PRODUCES RADIATION WHEN ENERGIZED”, or words having a similar intent, near any
switch that energizes an x-ray tube if the radiation source is an x-ray tube; or
- “CAUTION - RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL”, or words having a similar intent, on the source housing in accordance with Section
D.904 of the regulations if the radiation source is a radionuclide.
- Shutters - On open-beam configurations installed after [effective date of this regulation], each port on the radiation source housing
shall be equipped with a shutter that cannot be opened unless a collimator or a coupling has been connected to the port.
- Radiation Source Housing - Each radiation source housing shall be subject to the following requirements:
- Each x-ray tube housing shall be equipped with an interlock that shuts off the tube if it is removed from the radiation source
housing or if the housing is disassembled.
- Each radioactive source housing or port cover or each x-ray tube housing shall be so constructed that, with all shutters closed,
the radiation measured at a distance of 5 centimeters from its surface is not capable of producing a dose in excess of 2.5 millirems
(0.025 mSv) in one hour. For systems utilizing x-ray tubes, this limit shall be met at any specified tube rating.
- Generator Cabinet - Each x-ray generator shall be supplied with a protective cabinet which limits leakage radiation measured at a
distance of 5 centimeters from its surface such that it is not capable of producing a dose in excess of 0.25 millirem (2.5 µSv) in
Sec. H.4 Area Requirements
- Radiation Levels - The local components of an analytical x-ray system shall be located and arranged and shall include sufficient
shielding or access control such that no radiation levels exist in any area surrounding the local component group which could result in a
dose to an individual present therein in excess of the dose limits given in Section D.301 of the regulations. For systems utilizing x-ray
tubes, these levels shall be met at any specified tube rating.
- Radiation surveys, as required by Section D.501 of the regulations, of all analytical x-ray systems sufficient to show compliance
with Paragraph H.4a. shall be performed:
- upon installation of the equipment, and at least once every 12 months thereafter;
- following any change in the initial arrangement, number, or type of local components in the system;
- following any maintenance requiring the disassembly or removal of a local component in the system;
- during the performance of maintenance and alignment procedures if the procedures require the presence of a primary x-ray beam
when any local component in the system is disassembled or removed;
- any time a visual inspection of the local components in the system reveals an abnormal condition; and
- whenever personnel monitoring devices show a significant increase over the previous monitoring period or the readings are
approaching the limits specified in Section D.201 of the regulations.
- Radiation survey measurements shall not be required if a registrant or licensee can demonstrate compliance with Paragraph H.4a.
to the satisfaction of the Agency.
- Posting - Each area or room containing analytical x-ray equipment shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the
radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION - X-RAY EQUIPMENT” or words having a similar intent in accordance with Section D.902
of the regulations.
Sec. H.5 Operating Requirements
- Procedures - Normal operating procedures shall be written and available to all analytical x-ray equipment workers. No individual
shall be permitted to operate analytical x-ray equipment in any manner other than that specified in the procedures unless such individual
has obtained written approval of the radiation safety officer.
- Bypassing - No individual shall bypass a safety device or interlock unless such individual has obtained the approval of the radiation
safety officer. Such approval shall be for a specified period of time. When a safety device or interlock has been bypassed, a readily
discernible sign bearing the words "SAFETY DEVICE NOT WORKING”, or words having a similar intent, shall be placed on the
radiation source housing.
- Repair or Modification of X-Ray Tube Systems - Except as specified in Paragraph H.5b., no operation involving removal of covers,
shielding materials or tube housings or modifications to shutters, collimators, or beam stops shall be performed without ascertaining
that the tube is off and will remain off until safe conditions have been restored. The main switch, rather than interlocks, shall be used
for routine shutdown in preparation for repairs.
- Radioactive Source Replacement, Testing, or Repair - Radioactive source housings shall be opened for source replacement, leak
testing, or other maintenance or repair procedures only by individuals authorized to specifically conduct such procedures under a license
issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), an Agreement State, or a Licensing State.
Sec. H.6 Personnel Requirements
- Instruction - No individual shall be permitted to operate or maintain analytical x-ray equipment unless such individual has received
instruction in and demonstrated competence as to:
- identification of radiation hazards associated with the use of the equipment;
- significance of the various radiation warning, safety devices, and interlocks incorporated into the equipment, or the reasons
they have not been installed on certain pieces of equipment and the extra precautions required in such cases;
- proper operating procedures for the equipment;
- recognition of symptoms of an acute localized exposure; and
- proper procedures for reporting an actual or suspected exposure.
- Personnel Monitoring
- Finger or wrist dosimetric devices shall be provided to and shall be used by:
- analytical x-ray equipment workers using systems having an open-beam configuration and not equipped with a safety device; and
- personnel maintaining analytical x-ray equipment if the maintenance procedures require the presence of a primary x-ray beam
when any local component in the analytical x-ray system is disassembled or removed.
- Reported dose values shall not be used for the purpose of determining compliance with Section D.201 of the regulations unless
evaluated by a qualified expert.